The following sections discuss how to use write operations, cursors and
SELECT INTOwhen manipulating data.
You can use
DELETEstatements in a function or procedure provided
MODIFIES SQL DATAhas been specified for the access clause, see Routine Access Clause.
You can use routine parameters and variables in these statements wherever an expression can normally be used, as shown in the examples below.
ExampleCREATE PROCEDURE mimer_store_book.add_title(IN p_book_title VARCHAR(48), IN p_authors VARCHAR(128), IN p_published_by VARCHAR(48), IN p_format VARCHAR(20), IN p_isbn CHAR(18), IN p_date_released CHAR(10), IN p_price DECIMAL(7, 2), IN p_stock SMALLINT, IN p_reorder_level SMALLINT) -- Add the details for a book entity; inserts against the join view which fires -- the instead of trigger MODIFIES SQL DATA BEGIN -- Insert into join view INSERT INTO mimer_store_book.details(title, authors_list, publisher, format,isbn, release_date, price, stock, reorder_level) VALUES (p_book_title, p_authors, p_published_by, p_format, p_isbn, p_date_released, p_price, p_stock, p_reorder_level); END -- of routine mimer_store_book.add_title
You can use the
ROW_COUNToption of the
GET DIAGNOSTICSstatement may be used immediately after an
FETCHstatement to determine the number of rows affected by the preceding statement.
ExampleDECLARE v_rows INTEGER; ... INSERT INTO mimer_store_book.details ...; GET DIAGNOSTICS v_rows = ROW_COUNT; IF v_rows > 0 THEN
Note: All SQL statements except GET DIAGNOSTICS will overwrite the information in the diagnostics area.
You can declare and use cursors in a compound SQL statement to receive a result set from a
select-expressionor from a result set procedure.
A cursor may not have the same name as another cursor declared in the same scope.
Cursors in a procedural usage context are used in much the same way, in terms of the SQL statements used, as cursors declared outside routines. It is possible to open cursors, fetch data into variables and use the statements
DELETE WHERE CURRENT OFcursor.
Example 1DECLARE NREC ROW AS (SOMETABLE); DELARE C CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM SOMETABLE; BEGIN DECLARE EXIT HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND CLOSE C; OPEN C; LOOP FETCH C INTO NREC; ... END LOOP; END;
Example 2DECLARE D DATE DEFAULT CURRENT_DATE; DECLARE C1,C2 CHAR(5); DECLARE Z SCROLL CURSOR FOR CALL PROC(1,D); DECLARE I INTEGER; ... OPEN Z; ... FETCH FIRST FROM Z INTO C1; ... FETCH ABSOLUTE I FROM Z INTO C2; FETCH ABSOLUTE I FROM Z INTO C2;
Example 1 demonstrates detection of the
NOT FOUNDexception as a method of detecting that a
FETCHstatement does not return any data. If a
NOT FOUNDexception occurs in the example, an exit handler is invoked. After the exit handler has finished, the flow of control leaves the compound SQL statement.
GET DIAGNOSTICSstatement can be used to retrieve the number of rows affected by the
FETCHstatement, as shown below.
ExampleDECLARE ROWS INTEGER; L1: LOOP FETCH X INTO I_CHARGE_CODE,I_AMOUNT; GET DIAGNOSTICS ROWCNT = ROW_COUNT; IF ROWCNT = 0 THEN LEAVE L1; END IF; END LOOP; CLOSE X;
The following specific restrictions apply to cursors used in routines:
- no dynamic functions can be used (i.e. extended cursor names and the use of SQL descriptors)
REOPENABLEcursors are not allowed
- the use of the keyword
CLOSEstatement is not permitted.
FETCHto get result set data from a result set procedure may cause parts of the result set procedure to execute, see Result Set Procedures. The result set procedure will be in use until the associated cursor is closed.
Another way of fetching data is by using a
SELECT INTOstatement. This can only be used when one single row is fetched from the database. If more than one row fulfills the search criteria, an exception condition is raised. If no data is found, a not found condition is raised.
ExampleSELECT currency, v_price * exchange_rate INTO p_local_currency, p_local_price FROM mimer_store.customers JOIN mimer_store.countries AS cnt ON cnt.code = country_code JOIN mimer_store.currencies AS crn ON crn.code = currency_code FETCH 1;
It is possible to start and end transactions within a routine. A transaction is implicitly started when a routine that accesses the database is invoked.
It is also possible to explicitly start a transaction by using the
STARTstatement. When a transaction is ended, either by a
ROLLBACKstatement, all open cursors are closed.
ExampleSTART; UPDATE table SET ... WHERE col = v_str, ... ... COMMIT;
It is possible to affect the behavior of transactions by using the
Note: If a compound SQL statement is defined as ATOMIC, a transaction cannot be terminated within it because execution of the COMMIT or ROLLBACK statements is not permitted.
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