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Mimer SQL is an advanced relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by Upright Database Technology AB.

The database management language Mimer SQL is compatible in all essential features with the established SQL standards, see the Mimer SQL Reference Manual for details.

The information contained in this handbook generally applies to all the platforms supported by Mimer SQL. From time to time platform-specific notes appear in the general description, presented as follows:

UNIX: Denotes information that applies specifically to UNIX platforms.

VMS: Denotes information that applies specifically to VMS platforms.

Win: Denotes information that applies specifically to Windows platforms.

Mimer SQL User Interfaces

Mimer SQL is accessed through the following user interfaces:

This manual describes the usage of SQL embedded in application programs, and provides, together with the Mimer SQL Reference Manual, the complete reference material for Mimer SQL. The BSQL facilities are described in the Mimer SQL User's Manual.

For details on how to read the syntax diagrams which appear in this manual see the Mimer SQL Reference Manual.

Note: To simplify the description in this manual, pseudo code is used in all examples. Details pertinent to real host programming languages may be found in Host Language Dependent Apects.
The structure of the pseudo code is largely self-explanatory. No distinction is made between integers of different lengths. Only statements essential to the illustration at hand are shown in the examples: many statements required in actual application programs are omitted.

Documentation Objectives

This manual describes how SQL statements may be embedded in application programs written in conventional host languages. It also describes how to create and use Stored Procedures and Functions, see Persistent Stored Modules and Triggers.

Intended Audience

The manual is intended for application developers working with Mimer SQL.


Application developers using this manual are assumed to have a working acquaintance with the principles of the relational database model in general and of Mimer SQL in particular.

It is also assumed that programmers writing embedded SQL applications are familiar with the principles of the SQL database management language.

Knowledge of Mimer SQL is of course an advantage, although experience with other standard-compliant SQL implementations will suffice. Experience of Mimer SQL is best gained through interactive use of the BSQL facility, see the Mimer SQL User's Manual.

Competence in at least one of the host programming languages supporting embedded Mimer SQL (i.e. C/C++, COBOL or FORTRAN) is assumed.

Organization of this Manual

The organization of the material in this manual reflects the general requirements for writing application programs using embedded SQL:

This chapter introduces embedded SQL in relation to the other Mimer SQL products.

Creating Mimer SQL Applications presents the basic principles of embedding SQL in application programs and describes features of preprocessing and compiling embedded SQL programs.

Communicating with the Application Program describes the way in which embedded SQL communicates with the host program through host variables.

Idents and Database Connections describes how to log in to the database from application programs and how to make use of program idents.

Accessing Database Objects describes how to access data in the database tables; how to retrieve data and how to change table contents.

Transaction Handling and Database Security describes the essential features of transaction handling.

Dynamic SQL describes the special features of dynamic SQL, which allow an application program to process SQL statements entered by the user at run-time.

Persistent Stored Modules describes stored functions, modules and procedures.

Triggers describes triggers, which define a set of procedural SQL statements that are to be executed when a specified data manipulation operation occurs on a named table or view.

Handling Errors and Exception Conditions describes how to handle errors and exception conditions.

Appendix A-D describe host language dependent aspects of embedded SQL and preprocessors, SQL return codes and program examples.

Related Mimer SQL Publications

contain general and platform-specific information relating to the Mimer SQL release for which they are supplied.

Suggestions for Further Reading

We can recommend to users of Mimer SQL the many works of C. J. Date. His insight into the potential and limitations of SQL, coupled with his pedagogical talents, makes his books invaluable sources of study material in the field of SQL theory and usage. In particular, we can mention:

A Guide to the SQL Standard (Fourth Edition, 1997). ISBN: 0-201-96426-0. This work contains much constructive criticism and discussion of the SQL standard, including SQL99.


JDBC information can be found on the internet at the following web addresses: http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/ and http://www.mimer.com/jdbc/.

For information on specific JDBC methods, please see the online documentation for the java.sql package. This documentation is normally included in the Java development environment.

JDBC API Tutorial and Reference, 2nd edition. ISBN: 0-201-43328-1. A useful book published by JavaSoft.


Microsoft ODBC 3.0 Programmer's Reference and SDK Guide for Microsoft Windows and Windows NT. ISBN: 1-57231-516-4. This manual contains information about the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) interface, including a complete API reference.

SQL Standards

Official documentation of the accepted SQL standards may be found in:

ISO/IEC 9075:1999(E) Information technology - Database languages - SQL. This document contains the standard referred to as SQL99.

ISO/IEC 9075:1992(E) Information technology - Database languages - SQL. This document contains the standard referred to as SQL92.

ISO/IEC 9075-4:1996(E) Database Language SQL - Part 4: Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM). This document contains the standard which specifies the syntax and semantics of a database language for managing and using persistent routines.

CAE Specification, Data Management: Structured Query Language (SQL), Version 2. X/Open document number: C449. ISBN: 1-85912-151-9. This document contains the X/Open-95 SQL specification.

Definitions, Terms and Trademarks

American National Standards Institute, Inc.
Application Programming Interface
The Mimer SQL facility for using SQL interactively or by running a command file
The preprocessor for embedded Mimer SQL
International Electrotechnical Commission
International Standards Organization
The Java database API specified by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Microsoft's Open Database Connectivity
Persistent Stored Modules, the term used by ISO/ANSI for Stored Procedures
Structured Query Language
X/Open is a trademark of the X/Open Company

All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.

Upright Database Technology AB
Voice: +46 18 780 92 00
Fax: +46 18 780 92 40
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