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Mimer SQL is an advanced database management system developed by Upright DatabaseTechnology AB. The database management language Mimer SQL (Structured Query Language) is compatible in all essential features with the currently accepted SQL standards, see the Mimer SQL Reference Manual for details.

Mimer SQL is available through the following user interfaces:

This manual provides an introduction to the concepts and usage of Mimer SQL, including its use in the BSQL environment. Embedded SQL is described in the Mimer SQL Programmer's Manual. A full description of the syntax and function of Mimer SQL statements is given in the Mimer SQL Reference Manual.

Note: In the syntax descriptions appearing in this manual, items in square brackets ([ ]) are optional and items separated by a vertical bar ( | ) are alternatives. Example:
 READ [COMMAND | ALL] [INPUT FROM] 'filename'.

Documentation Objectives

This manual is intended primarily for users of Mimer SQL who have little or no experience of SQL (Structured Query Language). It describes how to use Mimer SQL for creating and manipulating the database contents without attempting to give an exhaustive description of Mimer SQL.

Refer to the Mimer SQL Reference Manual for a complete syntax description of the statements supported in Mimer SQL.

Also included in this manual is a detailed description of the facilities provided in BSQL.


There are no prerequisites for users of this manual. However, it is to the user's advantage to be familiar with the principles of the relational database model when working with BSQL.

Organization of this Manual

This manual is divided into two main sections, dealing respectively with SQL database management facilities and the BSQL interface.

This chapter is a brief introduction to this manual.

Chapters 2-8 describe how to use SQL for database management, and may be used as a guide to SQL for users not familiar with the language:

Basic Concepts of Mimer SQL presents the general concepts of the Mimer SQL. To a large extent, these concepts are common to other database management systems which support the SQL standards.

Managing Database Connections describes how to manage connections (logging on) to a Mimer SQL database.

Retrieving Data describes how to retrieve data from a database using SELECT statements.

Data Manipulation describes how to change the database contents using DELETE, INSERT and UPDATE statements.

Managing Transactions describes transaction handling in the Mimer SQL database system.

Defining a Database describes how to create database objects (idents, databanks, domains, tables, triggers, modules, functions, procedures etc.).

Defining Privileges describes how to manage privileges in the database.

Chapters 9-11 describe the BSQL facility:

Mimer BSQL describes the BSQL facility.

Variables in BSQL describes how variables can be handled in BSQL.

Error Handling describes error handling in BSQL.

The manual also contains the following appendix:

Example Database lists the structure and contents of an example database provided with the Mimer SQL distribution and used in the examples in this manual.

Related Mimer SQL Publications

Suggestions for Further Reading

We can recommend to users of Mimer SQL the many works of C. J. Date. His insight into the potential and limitations of SQL, coupled with his pedagogical talents, makes his books invaluable sources of study material in the field of SQL theory and usage. In particular, we can mention:

A Guide to the SQL Standard (Fourth Edition, 1997). ISBN: 0-201-96426-0. This work contains much constructive criticism and discussion of the SQL standard, including SQL99.

JDBC Users

JDBC information can be found on the internet at the following web addresses: http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/ and http://www.mimer.com/jdbc/.

For information on specific JDBC methods, please see the online documentation for the java.sql package. This documentation is normally included in the Java development environment.

JDBC API Tutorial and Reference, 2nd edition. ISBN: 0-201-43328-1. A useful book published by JavaSoft.

ODBC Users

Microsoft ODBC 3.0 Programmer's Reference and SDK Guide for Microsoft Windows and Windows NT. ISBN: 1-57231-516-4. This manual contains information about the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) interface, including a complete API reference.

SQL Standards

Official documentation of the accepted SQL standards may be found in:

ISO/IEC 9075:1999(E) Information technology - Database languages - SQL. This document contains the standard referred to as SQL99.

ISO/IEC 9075:1992(E) Information technology - Database languages - SQL. This document contains the standard referred to as SQL92.

ISO/IEC 9075-4:1996(E) Database Language SQL - Part 4: Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM). This document contains the standard which specifies the syntax and semantics of a database language for managing and using persistent routines.

CAE Specification, Data Management: Structured Query Language (SQL), Version 2. X/Open document number: C449. ISBN: 1-85912-151-9. This document contains the X/Open-95 SQL specification.

Acronyms, Terms and Trademarks

International Electrotechnical Commission
International Standards Organization
Structured Query Language
Persistent Stored Modules (i.e. Stored Procedures)
X/Open is a trademark of the X/Open Company

All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.

Upright Database Technology AB
Voice: +46 18 780 92 00
Fax: +46 18 780 92 40