After the physical file space has been allocated on a disk for the databank, (CREATE DATABANK), you can create the tables. The basic CREATE TABLE statement defines the columns in the table, the primary key, any unique or foreign keys and which databank the table is to be stored in. Table names and column names may be up to 128 characters long.
As a convention, we have defined primary key column(s) as the first column(s) in the example definitions. However, this is not a necessity; primary key columns may be defined anywhere in the column list. Primary keys are always NOT NULL, so there is no need to explicitly state that in the table definition (they are included in the examples here for clarity).
Create Table Statement
The statement for creating a table has the general form:CREATE TABLE table-name;
Create the table CURRENCIES with three columns in the MIMER_STORE schema.
The table shall be as follows:
- Name the first column CODE, make it of the CHARACTER data type with a maximum of three characters.
- Name the second column CURRENCY, make it of the CHARACTER data type with a maximum of 32 characters and don't allow NULL values to be stored in the column.
- Name the third column EXCHANGE_RATE and make it of the data type DECIMAL with a total of twelve digits, four of which can be decimal values.
- Declare the CODE column as the primary key and place this table in the MIMER_STORE databank.CREATE TABLE mimer_store.currencies ( code CHARACTER(3), currency CHARACTER(32) NOT NULL, exchange_rate DECIMAL(12, 4), PRIMARY KEY(code)) IN mimer_store;
The CREATE TABLE clause defines the name of the table followed by a column list, which includes the names of the columns in the table, their data type, if they should allow the NULL indicator and the primary key declaration. Each item in the column-list is separated from the next by a comma, and the entire list is enclosed in parentheses.
A table definition may only include one primary key clause. The primary key can be made up of more than one column.
The IN clause states which databank the table is to be stored in. This clause may be omitted; if the IN clause is not specified, Mimer SQL will select the 'best' databank in which to place the table.
The empty table now exists in the databank. Data is inserted into the table with the INSERT statement, see Inserting Data.
The preceding example shows the simplest form of column list. The following variants may also be used:
- columns belonging to domains
- default values (overriding any domain default for the column)
- columns not belonging to the primary key defined as NOT NULL
- unique constraints (in addition to the primary key)
- foreign key constraints
- check constraints.
The ITEMS Table
The ITEMS table in the example database is defined with many of the options that can be used in creating tables. See the Mimer SQL Reference Manual, Chapter 12, CREATE TABLE, for more information.
The ITEMS table is defined as follows:CREATE TABLE items ( item_id internal_id DEFAULT NEXT_VALUE OF item_id_seq, product_id internal_id CONSTRAINT itm_product_id_is_null NOT NULL, format_id format_id CONSTRAINT itm_format_id_is_null NOT NULL, release_date DATE, status CHAR DEFAULT 'A' CONSTRAINT itm_status_is_null NOT NULL CONSTRAINT itm_status_illegal -- Available, Deleted CHECK (status IN ('A', 'X')), price euros CONSTRAINT itm_price_illegal CHECK (price >= 4.99 AND price <= 366.00), stock SMALLINT CONSTRAINT itm_stock_is_null NOT NULL CONSTRAINT itm_stock_illegal CHECK (stock >= 0), reorder_level SMALLINT CONSTRAINT itm_reorder_level_is_null NOT NULL, ean_code BIGINT CONSTRAINT itm_ean_code_is_null NOT NULL, producer_id internal_id DEFAULT NULL, image_id internal_id DEFAULT NULL, CONSTRAINT itm_primary_key PRIMARY KEY(item_id), CONSTRAINT itm_ean_code_exists UNIQUE (ean_code), CONSTRAINT itm_products FOREIGN KEY (product_id) REFERENCES products(product_id) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE NO ACTION, CONSTRAINT itm_formats FOREIGN KEY (format_id) REFERENCES formats ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE NO ACTION, CONSTRAINT itm_producers FOREIGN KEY (producer_id) REFERENCES producers ON DELETE NO ACTION ON UPDATE NO ACTION, CONSTRAINT itm_images FOREIGN KEY (image_id) REFERENCES images ON DELETE SET DEFAULT ON UPDATE NO ACTION) IN mimer_store;
The ordering of column specifications, key clauses and check conditions is not fixed. If desired, the key and check clauses can be written in association with the respective column specifications.
Columns should in general be defined as NOT NULL unless there is a specific reason for using the NULL value in the column (e.g. CHECKIN and CHECKOUT in the table BOOK_GUEST, where NULL indicates that the reservation has not checked in or out). The presence of NULL values can often complicate the formulation of queries, see Handling NULL Values.
Note: Take particular care to exclude NULL from numerical columns which are to be used for mathematical operations.
Domains are used for many columns to help in maintaining database integrity. By using the same domain for columns in different tables, the column data types are guaranteed to be consistent. See Creating Domains for more information
The Primary Key Constraint
The purpose of a primary key is to define a key value that uniquely identifies each table row, therefore the primary key value for each row in the table must be unique.
The primary key constraint can consist of more than one column in the table. The choice of columns to use as the primary key is determined by the relational model for the database, which is outside the scope of this manual.
A unique constraint can defined for one or more columns in the table. The list of columns that make up the unique constraint are specified in the UNIQUE clause for the table when it is created.
This is the recommended way of defining a unique constraint, the other methods described below are mentioned for information only.
Specifying UNIQUE in the definition of a column in the table is equivalent to supplying a list of one column in the UNIQUE clause for the table and effectively specifies a one-column unique constraint.
Creating a UNIQUE index on the table has the same effect as a unique constraint.
Foreign Keys - Referential Constraints
Use foreign keys to maintain integrity between the contents of related tables.
Note: The tables referenced in a foreign key clause of a table definition must exist prior to the definition of the foreign key (unless the key is in the reference table itself, to ensure referential integrity within a table or the table definition is within a create schema statement and the foreign key constraint refers to a table in the same schema definition statement).
The number of columns listed as FOREIGN KEY must be the same as the number of columns in the primary key of the REFERENCES table, unless columns in an unique constraint are referenced explicitly in a column list. See the CREATE TABLE syntax in the Mimer SQL Reference Manual for details.
The nth FOREIGN KEY column corresponds to the nth column in the primary key of the REFERENCES table, and the data types and lengths of corresponding columns must be identical. Columns may not be used more than once in the same FOREIGN KEY clause.
If the NULL indicator is permitted in a foreign key, then either at least one of the columns in the foreign key is NULL or the values in the foreign key columns must be present in the corresponding primary key columns of the reference table.
A table definition may contain as many FOREIGN KEY references as required. The same column in the table may be used in separate FOREIGN KEY clauses referring to different REFERENCES tables.
Note: A table containing a foreign key reference or referenced in a foreign key must be stored in a databank with either the TRANS or LOG option.
Foreign Key Example
The ITEMS table has four foreign key references:CREATE TABLE items ( item_id internal_id DEFAULT NEXT_VALUE OF item_id_seq, product_id internal_id CONSTRAINT itm_product_id_is_null NOT NULL, format_id format_id CONSTRAINT itm_format_id_is_null NOT NULL, . . producer_id internal_id DEFAULT NULL, image_id internal_id DEFAULT NULL, . . CONSTRAINT itm_products FOREIGN KEY (product_id) REFERENCES products(product_id) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE NO ACTION, CONSTRAINT itm_formats FOREIGN KEY (format_id) REFERENCES formats ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE NO ACTION, CONSTRAINT itm_producers FOREIGN KEY (producer_id) REFERENCES producers ON DELETE NO ACTION ON UPDATE NO ACTION, CONSTRAINT itm_images FOREIGN KEY (image_id) REFERENCES images ON DELETE SET DEFAULT ON UPDATE NO ACTION) . .
These maintain referential integrity as follows:
- FOREIGN KEY (product_id) REFERENCES products(product_id)
- FOREIGN KEY (format_id) REFERENCES formats
- FOREIGN KEY (producer_id) REFERENCES producers
- FOREIGN KEY (image_id) REFERENCES images
Specifying ON DELETE
When defining a foreign key constraint it is possible to specify in an ON DELETE clause what action that shall take place if the corresponding record in the referenced table is deleted.
The possible actions are
- NO ACTION
- SET NULL
- SET DEFAULT
Check constraints in table definitions are used to make sure that data in a column in the table fits certain conditions.CREATE TABLE items ( . . status CHAR DEFAULT 'A' CONSTRAINT itm_status_is_null NOT NULL CONSTRAINT itm_status_illegal -- Available, Deleted CHECK (status IN ('A', 'X')), price euros CONSTRAINT itm_price_illegal CHECK (price >= 4.99 AND price <= 366.00), stock SMALLINT CONSTRAINT itm_stock_is_null NOT NULL CONSTRAINT itm_stock_illegal CHECK (stock >= 0), . .
The check clause defined on the PRICE column extends any limitations imposed by the EUROS domain definition. The extension applies only to this table, and does not affect other columns in the database that belong to the EUROS domain:CREATE DOMAIN euros AS NUMERIC(7, 2) CONSTRAINT euros_value_is_null CHECK (VALUE IS NOT NULL) CONSTRAINT euros_value_illegal CHECK (VALUE > 0.0);
The constraint names, e.g. ITM_PRICE_ILLEGAL in the ITEMS table, can be used in an ALTER TABLE statement to drop the check constraint. All constraints, primary key, unique, not null and foreign key constraints can be named in this manner.
If no constraint name is given, a unique name is generated by the system. This name can be seen by using the describe statement in BSQL. See Mimer BSQL.
Ensure that either the customer's e-mail address and password are both defined or that neither is defined:CREATE TABLE customers ( . . email VARCHAR(128) COLLATE english, password VARCHAR(18), . . CONSTRAINT cst_email_password_cross_check CHECK ( ((email IS NULL OR email = '') AND (password IS NULL OR password = '')) OR ((email IS NOT NULL AND email <> '') AND (password IS NOT NULL AND password <> '')))) . .
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